Did you know that Australia is the biggest producer of wool used for clothing worldwide? It’s also home to a huge population of over 74 million sheep.

Sadly, Australian sheep are prone to a painful, and often fatal condition called ‘flystrike’. A major cause of flystrike is that much of the Australian Merino industry prefers to use ‘wrinkled sheep’ types, essentially a sheep with excess skin.

Why do producers prefer wrinkled sheep? Because it’s thought that a sheep with more wrinkles (skin folds), produces a higher volume of wool.

Wrinkled sheep can be covered in skin folds across their bodies, including around their buttocks. However, this area becomes particularly prone to retaining moisture, urine, and faeces, the perfect conditions for fly larvae to grow by feed on the sheep’s skin and flesh. Flystrike is incredibly painful and can lead to horrific suffering.

A mulesed lamb | © Image: ABC Rural | Anthony Pancia

What is mulesing?

To make sheep less susceptible to flystrike, the mutilation practice of ‘mulesing’ was developed. Mulesing is the process of restraining lambs, usually 6-12 weeks old, on their backs in a metal cradle and using shears, similar to garden shears, to cut away folds of skin around their buttocks.

Mulesing is currently performed on approximately 70% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia.1Managing non-mulesed sheep, WA Department of Agriculture. https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/livestock-parasites/managing-non-mulesed-sheep Due to the suffering caused by this procedure, mulesing has been banned in New Zealand, however, it can still be legally performed in Australia, and without any pain relief.

Due to consumer concern, the Australian wool industry committed to phasing out mulesing by 2010. Unfortunately, this commitment was abandoned in 2009, and millions of lambs continue to be mulesed across Australia every year.

With a lack of industry leadership to enable change, it’s now up to consumers and brands to demand an end to mulesing. 

What are the alternatives?

The good news is that there are viable alternatives to mulesing available, alternatives which have been used by well over a thousand Australian producers. These include:

  • The use of more flystrike resistant sheep types – e.g. bare breeched and plain bodied sheep with no skin wrinkle,
  • Enhanced overall farming practices, increased monitoring and crutching (the shearing of wool from around the tail and between the rear legs of a sheep); and
  • The use of preventative chemical treatments.
Cover of Towards a Mulesed Future report with BG Consulting

Latest survey proves progress towards a non-mulesed future in Australia

New independent report, Towards a Non-Mulesed Future, of 97 Australian wool producers nationwide provides a ‘big picture’ understanding of why and how growers made the transition to end mulesing by using flystrike-resistant sheep.

FOUR PAWS advocates for the above solutions to be adopted, and strongly encourages Australian producers to prioritise shifting away from flystrike susceptible types (as shown below – the wrinkled sheep on the left) to flystrike resistant types (the plain bodied sheep on the right).

Recently shorn wrinkly vs. smooth sheep skin types. Image courtesy of Dr. Jim Watts of SRS Merino.

Brands and consumers are a crucial component of the solution to ending mulesing, and together we can send a signal that this practice needs to end. Encouragingly, over 100 brands including Hugo Boss, Adidas, GAP, Kathmandu and H&M, have now committed to stop using mulesed wool.

Every purchasing decision can make a difference and brands can further empower consumers by being transparent. Greater brand transparency will lead to better protection for millions of Aussie sheep and animals overall. It’s up to us to demand it.
Jessica Medcalf, Head of Programs, FOUR PAWS Australia

How can you help end mulesing?

  • Sign the petition to encourage brands to end sales of mulesed sheep wool.
  • Contact your favourite brands and politely let them know that you can’t wait to see mulesed sheep wool off their shelves!
  • Carefully consider your clothing options. If you have decided to continue wearing wool, it is important to actively seek brands which ensure the wool they use is certified ‘mulesed-free’.

What is FOUR PAWS doing about it?

FOUR PAWS is building consumer awareness of mulesing and is working to mobilise change in key wool markets. We are actively engaging with all sectors of the wool industry, brands and retailers, as well as peak fashion institutions and government, working collaboratively alongside other animal protection organisations to advocate for higher standards of sheep welfare standards.

Together we can call for change, and protect millions of vulnerable lambs from mulesing AND flystrike!

Guide for wool producers & retail brands

FOUR PAWS has launched a series of reports and guidebooks on ‘how’ and ‘why’ brands and wool producers can transition away from mulesed wool. Download your free copy now.

Feasibility study on transitioning to non-mulesed sheeps

A new independent survey of 97 woolgrowers across Australia shows producers achieving higher profitability, operational viability, and improvements on animal welfare after their transition to plain-bodied sheep. The report also includes 7 case studies to guide other sheep producers on their transition plan for a future without mulesing.

Key findings include:

  • 92% said improved animal welfare
  • 84% experienced an increased return on investment after their transition
  • 78% completed their transition to plain-bodied Merino sheeps within five years
  • World's first report finds fashion critically lagging on animal welfare

    New research from FOUR PAWS finds the fashion industry comes up short between what is said and what is delivered, with only 21% of brands tracing even a portion of animal-derived materials for animal welfare.

    FOUR PAWS has identified the essential first steps brands need to take, including the development of a comprehensive animal welfare policy.

    Policy development guidelines for animal welfare in textiles

    For brands choosing to continue using animal-derived materials, FOUR PAWS encourages the swift development or strengthening of existing animal welfare policies.

    These should include a robust vision, goals, and an implementation plan, all aimed at achieving the highest possible animal welfare standards.

    The FOUR PAWS policy development guidelines can assist brands in developing these essential animal protection plans.

    Transitioning away from mulesed wool:
    Guide on why & how

    Featuring interviews with brand sustainability managers who have already committed to moving away from mulesing, including fashion powerhouses H&M, Kathmandu and Espirit.

    This mulesing guidebook presents referenced information for brands on what mulesing is, why it’s happening, what the viable pain-free alternatives to managing flystrike are, an overview of the key wool assurance initiatives and a road-map as to how to transition away from mulesed wool within your supply chains.

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    References – Infographic
    A. Edwards L, 2012. ‘Lamb mulesing: impact on welfare and alternatives.’ CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 7(061), Accessed 13 June 2018
    B. Fell L & Shutt D 1989, ‘Behavioural and hormonal responses to acute surgical stress’, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 22, pp 283-294, accessed 22 June 2018
    C. Edwards L, 2012. ‘Lamb mulesing: impact on welfare and alternatives.’ CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 7(061), Accessed 13 June 2018
    D. The Weekly Times, ‘Gel spray the way to go for mulesing pain relief’ August 30 2016, accessed 6 April 2019
    E. Brown J 2018. ‘Super-fine producers in box seat as Italian mills compete for dwindling supply.’ The Land, accessed 9 March 2018